Is Google Spying on You? How to Quickly Craft an Ad Hoc Security Sandbox

In June, 2015 there was an alarming bit of news when people over at the Debian project realized that Chromium silently downloaded a closed source NaCl binary extension. It was the hotword extension which implements speech recognition techniques. When someone says “OK Google” within range of the microphone, Chrome interprets what follows as a command. This is an essential component of the hands free voice search feature offered in newly opened tabs or on Google’s homepage. It was not just alarming that open-source Chromium was installing a closed-source module, but also that this module could use your microphone to passively listen to you.

In Using Deviare to Create a Temporary Zero Day Patch we used Deviare to show how you can prevent an attack before a patch is available (without shutting down your computers). Here we show a simple and fast way to sandbox Google Chrome and know if it wants to listen to you. The Python code is available here.

A quick perusal of the Chrome project reveals that Core Audio APIs are used to obtain low-level access to recording hardware. Chrome instantiates an IMMDeviceEnumerator object and then uses the IMMDevice::Activate() method to instantiate an IAudioClient object. IAudioCaptureClient is instantiated through IAudioClient::GetService(). We hook CoCreateInstance() so that the call to create an IMMDeviceEnumerator is ignored and all interaction with microphones is blocked. More fine-grained control and monitoring capabilities can be achieved by hooking more specific functions.


  1. Windows Vista or later (1)
  2. Python 3 (tested with Python 3.4.3) with its pywin32 bindings
  3. Deviare COM registration, see below
  4. Chrome (tested with Chrome 43.0.2357.130)

Deviare COM Registration

Navigate to the bin directory of Deviare2 and execute regsvr32 DeviareCOM.dll. If you are using a 64-bit operating system, execute regsvr32 DeviareCOM64.dll.

You must also configure Chrome to enable the hotword “OK Google” extension. To do so, go to chrome://settings and set the default search engine to Google. A checkbox should appear just below. “Enable “OK Google” to start a voice search.” After you check it, the hotword NaCl extension module should load automatically whenever you visit Google’s homepage or open a new tab, provided that your country is supported. If this is not the case (you won’t see “Say “OK Google”” within the search textbox, or any equivalent in your language), you will have to use

Using the Script

There are two ways to run the demonstration script.
The first method is without arguments. In this case, the script will try to guess the path to the Chrome executable and launch it. Immediately after that, the hooks are created and attached to the process.
The second way (2) is to invoke it with a list of PIDs in this fashion:
python3 pid1 pid2 pid3 … pidn
In this case, it will attach the created hooks to the specified PIDs.


  1. This script was not written for Windows XP, and presumably will not work since it hooks APIs available in Windows Vista or later. However, it should not be difficult to hook the API used in XP.
  2. Hooking the Chrome processes when the hotword NaCl module is running may cause Chrome to crash because Chrome assumes the existence of a recording device. We trick it into thinking there is no such device, which is outside the possible normal execution flow.

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  1. Injecting a DLL in a Modern UI Metro Application
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  3. How to Identify Virtual Table Functions with the VTBL IDA Pro Plugin

Instrumenting the Windows XPS Print API


Deviare can be used to add watermarks to printed documents by intercepting XPS Print API interfaces. This technique can be applied to printing jobs on virtual or physical printing devices. Get the code.

The requirements are:

  • An operating system with XPS Print API (Windows Vista SP2 with Platform Update or higher)
  • Visual Studio 2008 with Service Pack 1
  • MS Windows Platform SDK 7.1 or higher
  • .NET Framework 2.0
  • Internet Explorer 9.0 or higher

This solution consists of two C# projects and one C++ project. The first C# project is IEPrintWatermark, which initiates the hooking process and loads the custom C++ DLL and C# plugin. The second is IEPrintWatermarkHelperCS, which is the plugin itself and does all the internal XPS watermark drawing operations. The C++ project is IEPrintWatermarkHelper, and it just gets a pointer to a specific internal interface.

To build the project, we use the “Batch Build” feature of the VS IDE. Since the x64 binaries depend on the x86 version of IEPrintWatermarkHelper, first we build the solution for the x86 platform so the x64 build can obtain the required dependencies. This is required due to the IE architecture where the main process runs in 64-bits, while the child IExplore.exe processes run in 32-bits.

After a successful build, run IEPrintWatermark. The default IE installation will be launched. Navigate to your desired page, and print the page to an XPS-compatible printer. A sample watermark consisting of a purple box and semitransparent, rotated text strings will be superimposed on the text or image on the page.

Additional notes

We used the .NET framework tools to import the Microsoft XPS Print API from the SDK xpsobjectmodel.idl file. The converted file, MSXPS.DLL, is located in the binary folders.

Additional code snippets were included to make it easier to use XPS Document API in C#. See for example the MakeMatrixTransform function which generates transformation matrices for rotating, translating and scaling the visual objects in the XPS document, and the MakeXPSColorfunction which generates a proper RGBA color value.

In XPS documents, all font resources are embedded from file streams. We have included a small font name to TTF filename mapping code (see GetSystemFontFileName function) for easier handling. Font name is case sensitive.

XPS font size is specified in “ems”, not pixels or points. 1 document inch equals to 96 XPS logical units.

All object transformations are relative to page origin (top-left is 0,0).


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RemoteBridge Is Now Open Source: Inspect and Control Java and COM Objects Remotely in Windows

RemoteBridge is now open source and available on GitHub as are Deviare Hooking Engine and Deviare-InProc. RemoteBridge allows you to access the COM and Java objects instanced in a process as if they were your own object instances. You can access their methods, properties and events from your own application. It is implemented as a COM itself so you can use it in almost every programming and scripting language in Windows, including .NET languages. RemoteBridge is handy If you want to modify the behavior of a closed Windows-based application: you can even access hidden COM instances and Java objects.

Legacy Integration and Workflow Automation

RemoteBridge enables you to modernize Windows legacy applications so they interact with web and mobile applications. You can also use RemoteBridge to extend the functionality of closed-source applications. Finally, RemoteBridge helps you add COM and Java applications to your automated workflow.

RemoteBridge Internals

To interact with a COM object, RemoteBridge initially hooks common COM object creation APIs like CoCreateInstance. Your applications receives a marshallable reference for every COM object so you can access the object’s methods and properties directly.

If the target application is running Java, RemoteBridge attaches itself to the Java Virtual Machine. Objects are gathered using standard Java Native Interface methods and a COM object wrapper is created. This wrapper allows your application to call methods and get/set properties of the wrapped java object.

SpyStudio Is Now Free: Create and Troubleshoot Application Virtualization Packages for Windows

SpyStudio is now free and available for download here. It is a Swiss Army knife for cyber security analysts, DevOps, QA engineers, and developers. You can take a look at the articles “Nektra and VMware are Collaborating to Simplify Application Virtualization Packaging” and “How Nektra Improved Desktop Virtualization for Symantec Corporation” to see how big vendors are using it. This multi-tool is useful for application virtualization, troubleshooting windows applications, application performance monitoring, malware analysis, and as a process monitor complement.

Windows 10 Support

Both, SpyStudio and Deviare In-Proc, and Deviare Windows hooking engine, work on Windows 10.

Application Virtualization


SpyStudio creates virtualization packages and layers for VMware ThinApp and Symantec Workspace Virtualization. You can see it in action in the videos Harvesting Applications and Creating VMware ThinApp Packages with SpyStudio and Creating a VMware ThinApp package for Firefox in less than two minutes with SpyStudio.


SpyStudio troubleshoots application virtualization issues in products like Microsoft App-V, VMware ThinApp, Symantec Workspace Virtualization, Citrix XenApp, Cameyo, and Spoon.

See the video Nektra SpyStudio and Troubleshooting ThinApp Package by Peter Björk Lead Specialist, EMEA EUC Practice at VMware.

Catalog of Ready To Use Application Virtualization Packages

Additionally, Nektra offers application virtualization packages built by our engineers for Microsoft Office, Microsoft Lync, and Internet Explorer. The Microsoft Office and Lync packages support volume licenses which require Microsoft Key Management Server (KMS).

Troubleshooting Windows Deployment Issues

When you don’t know why an application works in some environments but not in others you can use SpyStudio to help you spot the differences.

Please take a look at Fixing an Internet Explorer Issue Using SpyStudio video.

Application Performance Monitoring

With SpyStudio you can benchmark applications running in different environments and identify performance issues that are degrading the end-user experience. Windows native and .NET applications are supported.

Look at the following example: “Benchmarking Microsoft Office’s PowerPoint Virtualization” compares App-V and SWV“.

Malware Identification

SpyStudio performs dynamic analysis on 64-bit and 32-bit Windows applications. The application execution patterns allow you to detect malicious behavior.

The book “Malware Forensics: Investigating and Analyzing Malicious Code and Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems” discusses one way SpyStudio can be used to fight malware.

Process Monitor Complement

Process Monitor is great for looking at issues that can be detected in kernel mode but it does not show Windows API usage.

SpyStudio reads Process Monitor logs and displays them in a friendly UI to quickly spot issues connected to the Windows API.


Commercial support is also available here.

Deviare Hooking Engine is Open Source and Deviare In-Proc Supports .NET Hooking

We have good news for those interested in Windows Hooking. Deviare Hooking Engine is now open source and available on GitHub. The license is GPL but a commercial license and support are also available for users who want to distribute closed-source products based on Deviare. Our other open source hooking product, Deviare In-Proc, now supports hooking .NET methods. Our main competitor Microsoft Detours does not.

People can now use, learn from, and fork Deviare Hooking Engine. If you are new to Deviare and want to bootstrap a project please take a look at our related blog posts. Academic users might be interested in the following resources:

We have also added a new option to Deviare In-Proc which disallows reentrancy. If a hook is marked with the disallow reentrancy flag, then calling the hooked function from the detoured one will jump to the original API function. It also provides helper methods to facilitate DLL injection into other processes.

For other differences between Deviare Hooking Engine and Deviare In-Proc see the reddit thread: GPL alternative library to Microsoft Detours for binary instrumentation.

Case Studies

Related Solutions

Registration-Free Activation of Deviare Hooking Engine COM in x86 and x64 platforms

Deviare 101 Part 1

Welcome to the first installment of Deviare 101.

In this article, we’ll explain how to use Deviare’s Reg-Free COM capability to easily deploy applications on end-user machines.

This guide uses Visual Studio 2013 but can also be followed on earlier versions.

The Manifest File

Reg-Free COM requires an XML file called a “manifest”. Manifest files specify which DLLs to load, and sets other application run-time properties.

If your project includes multiple Windows target platforms, you must use a different manifest for each platform.

This is what the manifest we use to support Deviare in the x86 platform looks like:

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″?>

<asmv1:assembly manifestVersion=”1.0″ xmlns=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1″ xmlns:asmv1=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1″ xmlns:asmv2=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v2″ xmlns:xsi=””>

<assemblyIdentity version=”″ name=”myApp” processorArchitecture=”x86″/>




<assemblyIdentity type=”win32″ name=”DeviareCOM” version=”″ processorArchitecture=”x86″ />





Here is the manifest we use to support Deviare in the x64 platform:

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″?>

<asmv1:assembly manifestVersion=”1.0″ xmlns=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1″ xmlns:asmv1=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v1″ xmlns:asmv2=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v2″ xmlns:xsi=””>

<assemblyIdentity version=”″ name=”myApp” />




<assemblyIdentity type=”win32″ name=”DeviareCOM64″ version=”″ processorArchitecture=”amd64″ />





You must specify your application assembly name and version in the application’s <assemblyIdentity> tag. Additional attributes are optional.

How to Connect Your Application to the Manifest File

There are two ways to connect your application to the manifest file:

  • Place the manifest file in your application home directory. This requires the manifest file to have the same name as your application executable, with the “.manifest” suffix. For example, if your application executable is MyApp.exe, you must name the manifest MyApp.exe.manifest.
  • Embed the manifest in your application executable as a resource.

The second option involves a bit of work with project settings, and is described in the section below.

Deviare DLLs and database files should be placed in your application’s home directory or another searchable location (e.g: in the system path). Be aware that when you mix projects using Deviare with the Reg-Free COM mechanism with other projects using manual registration you may experience issues such as versioning problems. You can use the regsvr tool with the /U option to manually unregister Deviare.

Visual Studio C++ Project Setup Guide

To use Reg-Free COM Deviare in a C++ VS application, follow those steps:

  1. Create one manifest file for each target platform as shown at the beginning of this article. Name them “RegFreeCOM_x86.manifest” and “RegFreeCOM_x64.manifest”. Copy those files to your source file directory.
  2. Open your project settings, select the desired platform, go to “Manifest Tool >> Input and Output” and enter the filename in “Additional Manifest Files”. You can specify variables such as $(SolutionDir), $(ProjectDir) to modify the manifest path. Make sure the selected platform and manifest file platform match.


Do the same for the other platforms in your project,. In this case, the x64 platform:


DeviareCOM DLLs must be in the same directory as your executable. You can copy them manually; or use “Post-Build Event” in “Project Settings” to automate this step.


In the screenshot above, we show an example of how to use the “Command Line” field to copy Deviare DLLs and databases from a DLL directory within the solution directory ( $(SolutionDir) variable) to the output directory where the application executable is generated ( ($OutDir) variable).

  1. Build your project and test your application.

C# Project Setup Guide

Important: Visual Studio uses VSHOST.EXE to improve debugging when you launch an application. As a result Visual Studio ignores your embedded manifest and COM components are not loaded properly. There are two workarounds: 1) execute your application outside Visual Studio or 2) uncheck “Enable the Visual Studio hosting process” in your project settings:


If you want to use a single custom application manifest in a C# project, it’s easy to access the project settings dialog and choose a manifest file:


However, unlike Visual Studio C++ projects it is not possible to configure multiple-platform projects to use one manifest for each platform in Visual Studio C# projects. The above dialog only sets up a global manifest for the application.

Since Deviare 32-bit and 64-bit are different COM DLLs, you need to use different manifests to load them:

  1. Create manifest files as shown at the beginning of this article, one for each target platform. Name them “RegFreeCOM_x86.manifest” and “RegFreeCOM_x64.manifest”. Copy these files to your source file directory.
  2. Use a text editor to open your C# project file (“.csproj” extensión). Look for the “PropertyGroup” tags. There is one “PropertyGroup” for each configuration and platform target pair.

<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Release|x86′”>


<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Debug|x64′”>


<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Release|x64′”>


<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Debug|x86′”>


  1. With either VS closed or the project unloaded to allow modifications, you must insert the manifest declaration using the proper manifest file platform below the “<PropertyGroup …>” opening tag. If we have the RegFreeCOM_x86.manifest and RegFreeCOM_X64.manifest to use on the x86 and x64 builds, respectively, first, we’ll add the manifest declaration of the x86 build:

<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Release|x86′”>


Repeat for all configuration combinations; be careful not to delete the existing tags between the PropertyGroup opening and closing tags.

<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Debug|x64′”>


<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Release|x64′”> <ApplicationManifest>RegFreeCOM_x64.manifest</ApplicationManifest>


<PropertyGroup Condition=”‘$(Configuration)|$(Platform)’ == ‘Debug|x86′”>


  1. Save the file, and reopen it in Visual Studio. Build the x86 and x64 platforms and test your application.

Checking Embedded Manifests

You may want to see if a manifest is properly embedded (or embedded at all) for debugging purposes. The Windows SDK included with VS provides a tool (MT) to work with manifest files.

To extract the manifest from your application, simply use the -inputresource and -out flags:

mt -inputresource:RegFreeComTest.Exe;#1 -out:CON

“CON” displays the manifest in the console. You can specify a filename to save it.

Additional Information

There’s plenty of general information about manifest files, and Registration-Free COM. Here are some useful links.


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The Changing Landscape of the Application Performance Monitoring Market

If you look at the last Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for APM and compare it with what is really happening in the market you will notice two things:

  1. With the exception of Compuware, the leaders, New Relic and AppDynamics, are all newcomers. All the old established companies are excluded from the leader’s quadrant.
  2. Gartner separates APM and analytics products, suggesting that the latter are mere complements. However, when paired with third-party applications, these analytics products are perfectly capable of replacing APM.

Our hypothesis is that the whole APM market will move into two specializations: analytics engines and agents for gathering performance metrics across different monitoring disciplines. Many new analytic or log management products are entering the market. Our new product ActivityLogger can send desktop and server metrics to an analytics product. In the example below, we send user experience metrics to Elasticsearch and display the results with Kibana.


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64-bit Microsoft Office Applications Do Not Like Stack Walking

Our SpyStudio tool intercepts application system calls and retrieves the called functions by inspecting the call-stack.

We were unable to access stack information in the last few 64-bit releases of Microsoft Office products. When we use SpyStudio to intercept an Office installation or most Office applications like Word or Excel, they start normally, but eventually exit silently.

Our initial research showed the culprit to be the Office Software Protection Platform, which would make sense, as it is supposed to hide an application’s safety mechanisms.

However, the Office Software Protection Platform did not keep us from intercepting the 32-bit version of Microsoft Office, so we decided to investigate further.

The .pdata Section

How does the 64-bit operating system do a stack walk when an exception occurs, and how can a debugger know who called a function?

Microsoft added new metadata information  which is stored on a special section named “.pdata” in the PE file format specification. When an application is compiled, the compiler stores information related to the prolog of each function. If a function handles exceptions, the compiler also stores data about actions that must happen when the unwind operation is executed.

The operating system and the debugger use a series of RUNTIME_FUNCTION structures to retrieve a variety of information about each function, like how much stack space is reserved for each function usage, which callbacks must be called in an unwind operation, and where assembly registers are stored.

If you want to do your own stack walking, you can start from the current program counter (the RIP register in x64) and look for the RUNTIME_FUNCTION that belongs to it. Then process the UNWIND_INFO items to determine stack usage, and lastly, retrieve the location of the return address of the parent function.

Fortunately, there are some new APIs which makes the job easier. They are RtlLookupFunctionEntry and RtlVirtualUnwind. A stack walking code sample:

VOID StackTrace64(VOID)
    CONTEXT Context;
    UNWIND_HISTORY_TABLE UnwindHistoryTable;
    PRUNTIME_FUNCTION RuntimeFunction;
    PVOID HandlerData;
    ULONG64 EstablisherFrame, ImageBase;

    DbgPrint("StackTrace64: Executing stack trace...\n");
    // First, we'll get the caller's context.
    // Initialize the (optional) unwind history table.
    RtlZeroMemory(&UnwindHistoryTable, sizeof(UNWIND_HISTORY_TABLE));
    UnwindHistoryTable.Unwind = TRUE;
    // This unwind loop intentionally skips the first call frame, as it shall
    // correspond to the call to StackTrace64, which we aren't interested in.
    for (ULONG Frame = 0; ; Frame++)
        // Try to look up unwind metadata for the current function.
        RuntimeFunction = RtlLookupFunctionEntry(Context.Rip, &ImageBase,
        RtlZeroMemory(&NvContext, sizeof(KNONVOLATILE_CONTEXT_POINTERS));
        if (!RuntimeFunction)
            // If we don't have a RUNTIME_FUNCTION, then we've encountered
            // a leaf function.  Adjust the stack approprately.
            Context.Rip  = (ULONG64)(*(PULONG64)Context.Rsp);
            Context.Rsp += 8;
            // Otherwise, we call upon RtlVirtualUnwind to execute the unwind
            // for us.
            RtlVirtualUnwind(UNW_FLAG_NHANDLER, ImageBase, Context.Rip,
                             RuntimeFunction, &Context, &HandlerData,
                             &EstablisherFrame, &NvContext);

        // If we reach an RIP of zero, this means that we've walked off the
        // end of the call stack and are done.

        if (!Context.Rip)
        // Display the context
        DbgPrint("FRAME %02x: Rip=%p Rsp=%p Rbp=%p\n", Frame, Context.Rip,
                 Context.Rsp, Context.Rsp);

Source: Programming against the x64 exception handling support, part 7

Because the .pdata section is created when the application is compiled, if the program generates dynamic code, like the .NET JIT profiler does, it should also create the corresponding RUNTIME_FUNCTION metadata and inform the operating system of the new dynamic code.

The RtlInstallFunctionTableCallback API adds an entry in an internal processes table maintained by NtDll.dll that helps RtlLookupFunctionEntry and RtlVirtualUnwind find information on how to walk the stack when your dynamically generated code is in the middle of the function calls chain.

Microsoft Office Installer and Applications

So what explains the silent exit of an Office application like Word?

At first we thought that some kind of intentional data corruption was happening in the internal table. It seemed like some kind of anti-debugging technique to keep reverse engineers from seeing the product activation mechanism.

After some trial and error we noticed that RtlInstallFunctionTableCallback was installing a callback to a suspicious routine. Surprisingly, that routine calls TerminateProcess API! When our stack walker function wanted to know the chain of calls, RtlLookupFunctionEntry indirectly called that routine and the program terminated silently.

Could the guys at Microsoft have decided to use this strange method to protect their code? The annoying callback function was added and removed frequently during many operations.

The solution was to add a simple hook to the RtlInstallFunctionTableCallback API to keep it from being added. Now the issue is resolved and the fixed versions of Deviare “Hooking for the Masses” and SpyStudio will be available soon.

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Case Study: How Nektra Improved Desktop Virtualization for Symantec Corporation


Large companies are continually faced with new technologies and shorter technology cycles which render their trusted applications obsolete. Migrating an application from one technology to another is expensive and the timeframe required to carry it out is prohibitive for most companies. In 2010, Nektra developed software which allows old technologies such as Internet Explorer 6 to run on Windows 7. Symantec uses it in their Endpoint Virtualization Suite, but it can be used to virtualize many other applications as well.

The Challenges

Symantec Vision 2010 conference was approaching and Symantec was eager to implement IE6 virtualization in Windows 7, a feature already offered by some competitors. Symantec workspace virtualization also has to support many other technologies that are part of the IE6’s ecosystem: Java, Adobe Flash, and Acrobat Reader, and their updates.

Desktop virtualization products work successfully with the majority of applications but some applications require above-average application packaging skills and a few require tailored solutions.


Nektra used its SpyStudio and Deviare Interception technologies to virtualize IE6. SpyStudio pinpointed the gaps left by Symantec Workspace Virtualization, while Deviare filled in these gaps enabling IE6 to run in Windows 7. Brian Madden celebrates this new functionality in his blog and includes a video demo.

Nektra also provided third level escalation support, sopport for updated browser plugins, and fixes for the IE6 virtualization.

More recently, Nektra successfully tackled the issues related to virtualizing Microsoft Office with volume licensing for all versions of Windows up to 8.1.


  1. Adding a key feature to a product that leveraged Symantec’s position in the virtualization market
  2. Delivery in time for Symantec Vision 2010 conference
  3. The 3rd level escalation support service was able to handle all requests successfully

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  1. Nektra and VMware are Collaborating to Simplify Application Virtualization Packaging

Nektra and VMware are Collaborating to Simplify Application Virtualization Packaging

Nektra’s SpyStudio provides tools allowing for application harvesting and simplified packaging for the VMware ThinApp offering

Nektra and VMware, Inc. have been collaborating to significantly improve the process of creating and troubleshooting VMware ThinApp application virtualization packages with the SpyStudio application. The video below shows the SpyStudio new ability to harvest applications directly from the operating system to create VMware ThinApp packages even for applications where customers no longer have the installer media. The new SpyStudio release can be downloaded free from A fully featured version requires a license.

As companies embrace application virtualization, packaging and troubleshooting in some cases has proven difficult and resource intensive. SpyStudio offers a means to quickly compare application operations to help pinpoint and solve challenging packaging tasks.

The application virtualization market will continue to grow in the next years. Hence, it is critical to be able to make the virtualization process less error prone. Leveraging SpyStudio, a unique and advanced tool will prove to be an essential part of the growth of application virtualization and successful customer implementations.

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  1. Case Study: Nektra Escalation Support for Symantec Workspace Virtualization (SWV)